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battle of camperdown

Reacting at once, boats from nearby ships organised an evacuation and began loading the Dutch prisoners for transfer to more seaworthy vessels. [61] Instead he ordered his ships to ensure control of their prizes and to return to Britain. [103][104] In literature, the battle has played a central role in the 1968 novel Sea Road to Camperdown by Showell Styles,[105] and the 1975 novel The Fireship by C. Northcote Parkinson. Battle of Camperdown Battle Desc: The Battle of Camperdown was a major naval action fought on 11 October 1797, between the British North Sea Fleet under Admiral Adam Duncan and a Batavian Navy fleet under Vice-Admiral Jan de Winter. Hull severely damaged. Captured at 15:10, later became HMS, Hull very badly damaged and set on fire, mizenmast collapsed. The Battle of Camperdown (known in Dutch as the Zeeslag bij Kamperduin) was a major naval action fought on 11 October 1797, between the British North Sea Fleet under Admiral Adam Duncan and a Batavian Navy (Dutch) fleet under Vice-Admiral Jan de Winter. Although Camperdown was considered the greatest ever victory for a British fleet over an equal enemy force to that date, historian Noel Mostert has noted that it "was a battle that, with posterity, somehow lost rank and significance against the greater and more romantically glorious events that followed". In addition to the losses in the rear, five ships of the Dutch van had been captured as well as the frigate Ambuscade that had attacked from the second line. Local boats came out to the stranded vessel and all aboard were saved, the 35 British prisoners taken to a prison hulk at Flushing. Nevertheless, the effects of the action on the wider war were hugely important. Duncan's men were also better trained and more experienced than their Dutch counterparts, having spent considerably longer at sea and having been taught to fire three rounds a minute to the Dutch two. All first lieutenants were promoted to commander and Duncan and Onslow were presented with valuable presentation swords valued at 200 and 100 guineas each respectively. There is disagreement as to the identity of. ", Casualties in the battle were very heavy on both sides, and historians such as William James have noted that the losses among the British ships were proportionally much higher than when British fleets met French or Spanish opposition. "[31], When news of this decision reached the Admiralty, they recalled Duncan's blockade fleet to Yarmouth for a refit on 1 October, the admiral insisting on sending some of his ships back to the Dutch coast two days later under Captain Henry Trollope in HMS Russell accompanied by HMS Adamant and the small ships HMS Beaulieu, HMS Circe and HMS Martin with the hired lugger Black Joke. The loss of their flagship prompted the surviving Dutch ships to disperse and retreat, Duncan recalling the British ships with their prizes for the journey back to Yarmouth. On 14 October the frigates hunted for their opponents, and found the Dutch ships off the Goeree channel at 05:00. Listed in the casualties section are the totals of killed and wounded as best as can be established: due to the nature of the battle, Dutch losses were hard to calculate precisely. Das Kunstwerk The Battle of Camperdown on 11th October 1797 - Petrus Johann Schotel liefern wir als Kunstdruck auf Leinwand, Poster, Dibondbild oder auf edelstem … [53], The Battle of Camperdown, Thomas Whitcombe, 1798, Tate Gallery, While the Dutch rearguard was overwhelmed by British numbers, a more equal combat was being contested to the north. Zoom in to this image. Fine art. The painting may be purchased as wall art, home decor, apparel, phone cases, greeting cards, and more. [95] Duncan himself felt that he could have done more, noting that "We were obliged ... to be rather rash in our attack. The Dutch fleet was broken as a fighting force, losing ten ships and more than 1,100 men. When men from his flagship HMS Venerable clambered up into the rigging and roared three cheers in a prearranged signal for the revolt to begin on 1 May, Duncan initially threatened to run the ringleader through with his sword. [58] Russell, driving northwards to join the attack, encountered the now extinguished Hercules, whose crew had thrown all of their ammunition overboard during the fire to prevent the ship exploding. [32], De Winter had originally intended to close his line up into a solid defensive platform and retreat to shallower waters while Duncan formed his own line of battle, but the sudden, disorganised British attack had thrown his plans into confusion. [39] Meanwhile, further messages from Trollope reporting the Dutch movements had reached Duncan and he turned his fleet west, following the Dutch coastline. The Battle of Camperdown, October 1797 is a painting by Franciscus Wram which was uploaded on September 25th, 2018. The crew fitted jury masts, but they too collapsed and the hull flooded to a depth of 14 feet (4.3 m). Williams successfully raked his opponent twice, but the complicated tides of the Dutch coast dragged his ship out of range at 17:30 before he could press his attack any further. The French Republic had overrun the Dutch Republic two years earlier, reforming it into the Batavian Republic. Ahead of this combat, the lead ships HMS Isis and Gelijkheid fought alongside one another, Isis having failed to break through the Dutch line and instead drawn up to port. Commander Johan Ferdinand Dumesnil de l'Estrille, Captured but later driven ashore on the Dutch coast and retaken by Dutch forces, Badly damaged. Battle of Camperdown. Before further help could arrive however, the Delft suddenly foundered, Bullen and Heilberg throwing themselves clear as the ship sank. [57] To support Duncan, Captain William Essington of HMS Triumph and Captain Sir Thomas Byard of HMS Bedford drove forward into the battle, Triumph coming close alongside the Dutch Wassenaar and opening a heavy fire while Bedford attacked Admiraal Tjerk Hiddes De Vries and Hercules. When this letter was later published it provoked a storm of criticism in Britain, one officer describing it as "a garbled account which, for ought I know, might have been collected by people on shore who knew nothing of the action. Two were completely renamed, due to the prior existence of ships with their names in the Royal Navy; Jupiter became HMS Camperdown and Hercules became HMS Delft. The 64 gun Ardent under Captain Richard Burgess was the first to engage the enemy flagship the Vrijheid. fr Il combat à la bataille de Camperdown et durant les guerres napoléoniennes. Mark this image as a favourite. [3], By October 1797, the plan to attack Ireland had been abandoned and the British North Sea Fleet was again at full strength. [78] Five decades later the battle was among the actions recognised by a clasp attached to the Naval General Service Medal, awarded upon application to all British participants still living in 1847. Share this image on social platforms. "[90] while William James noted in 1827 that after the battle ""Batavian prowess" still claimed the respect of an enemy and the applause of the world". The Battle of Camperdown, 11 October 1797. Later became HMS, Hull and rigging severely damaged, main and mizenmasts collapsed. Camperdown 1.PNG 910 × 700; 4 KB. The battle … News then arrived that the Dutch fleet under De Winter was preparing to sail, and Duncan's fleet was ordered by Lord Spencer to blockade the Dutch coast. De Loutherbourg was celebrated for his dramatic depictions of maritime disasters and sea battles. The despatch vessel flew the signal for an enemy as it entered Yarmouth roads early in the morning on 9 October, so that by the time it had docked the British fleet was already preparing to sail,[Note 3] Duncan sending the final message to the Admiralty: "The wind is now in the NE and [I] shall make good course over to them, and if it please God, hope to get at them. The flagship Venerable fires its last broadside at the Dutch Vryhied. There, reports from Dutch fishing vessels of Duncan's appearance off the Texel reached De Winter and he immediately recalled his ships and ordered the fleet to turn back towards the Dutch coast, aiming for the village of Scheveningen. As they manoeuvred into their assigned stations, the Dutch fleet drew closer to the shore. With the Navy suffering severe shortages in men and equipment and with other theatres of war deemed more important, small, old and poorly maintained ships were activated from reserve and based in harbours in East Anglia, principally the port of Yarmouth, under the command of Admiral Adam Duncan. When British forces confronted the Dutch Navy again two years later in the Vlieter Incident, the Dutch sailors refused to fight and their ships surrendered en masse. Agincourt had been barely engaged in the battle and had suffered not one single casualty. En route, the fleet was struck by a series of gales and two prizes were wrecked and another recaptured before the remainder reached Britain. Articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with dead external links from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Battles of the War of the First Coalition, Naval battles involving the Batavian Republic, Naval battles of the French Revolutionary Wars, Order of battle at the Battle of Camperdown, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/8211, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/20476, https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/14055/page/, https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/14075/page/, What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? At 16:30, Endymion closed with the larger, but damaged, Dutch ship and opened fire, Brutus responding with a broadside of its own. [43] At 11:00 Duncan sought to remedy increasing gaps between his vessels by ordering the faster ships to slow down and wait for their compatriots. 93 Dutch prisoners had been removed, and among the remaining Dutch sailors were 76 wounded men. [46], At 12:05, Duncan raised the signal ordering his ships to engage the enemy closely. [19] The following week he assembled all of the men and demanded to know whether they would follow his orders: in response the crew nominated a spokesman, who apologised for their actions, saying "we humbly implore your honour's pardon with hearts full of gratitude and tears in our eyes for the offense we have given to the worthiest of commanders who has proved a father to us". ", and then attempted to personally raise signals demanding reinforcements from the rest of his fleet, only to find that the halyards had been shot away. [72] The prize crew left on the second rescue boat sent from Russell, and Bullen and Heilberg waited for a third trip to bring them off with the remaining 30 wounded men and three junior Dutch officers who had also elected to stay. WikiMatrix. [52] Agincourt's captain John Williamson was subsequently court-martialled and dismissed. For the next 24 hours the 66-year-old Duncan remained on duty without a break, organising the scattered fleet on its journey home. [38] At 07:00 on the morning of 11 October Trollope's squadron sighted sails to the northeast and, after confirming that they were Duncan's fleet, signalled that the Dutch fleet was approximately 3 nautical miles (5.6 km) further to the southwest, becoming visible to the fleet by 08:30. His remains were subsequently returned to the Netherlands with full military honours. [69], On Venerable, Duncan assembled all of those men fit to attend for a church service to "return thanks to Almighty God for all His mercies showered on them and him." the great occasion is lost, and we must do as well as we can. Media in category "Battle of Camperdown" The following 29 files are in this category, out of 29 total. . Battle of Camperdown, October 11, 1797 Giclee Print by George Chambers. [32] His fleet consisted of 16 ships of the line and a number of smaller support craft, and his orders from The Hague included instructions to remember "how frequently Dutch Admirals have maintained the honour of the Dutch flag, even when the enemy's forces were sometimes superior to theirs. He also attributed overwhelming British numbers to his defeat and suggested that he may have captured some of the British fleet if he had been better supported. Among the dead were Captain Burges of Ardent and two lieutenants, while the wounded included Captain Essington of Triumph and twelve lieutenants. Fine art. Eventually the last rebellious ship, Parker's own HMS Sandwich, surrendered on 14 June. [58] When British sailors from Director boarded the drifting flagship, De Winter was discovered assisting the carpenter with repairs to the barge. Throughout the year the British Admiral Adam Duncan had been stationed watching the Dutch fleet in Den Helder. It shows the later part of the action with De Winter's totally dismasted Dutch flagship 'Vrijheid' in the centre still exchanging broadsides with Duncan's 'Venerable', centre right. The ship itself was wrecked beyond repair and abandoned. The Dutch tried to lure the British commander on to the shoals, but he accepted the risk, chased them, and captured nine ships. ", Although Duncan's initial tactics at the battle were reminiscent of those of Howe at the Glorious First of June, and his eventual attack has been compared to Nelson's tactics at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805,[41] Duncan credited the tactical work Essay on Naval Tactics by John Clerk of Eldin for inspiring his decisions on the day. . The remainder of the Dutch ships had fled, making rapid progress towards the coastal shallows. The Battle of the Camperdown (Kamperduin) took place on the 11th … (New Series), https://www.thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/20939/page/, http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?workid=16133&searchid=22589, http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?workid=3722&searchid=22589, http://www.nmm.ac.uk/mag/pages/mnuExplore/PaintingDetail.cfm?ID=BHC0506&letter=A&search=Camperdown, http://www.nmm.ac.uk/mag/pages/mnuExplore/PaintingDetail.cfm?ID=BHC3100&letter=D&search=Camperdown, http://www.nmm.ac.uk/mag/pages/mnuExplore/PaintingDetail.cfm?ID=BHC0505&letter=B&search=Camperdown, http://www.nationalgalleries.org/collection/online_az/4:322/result/0/37814?initial=C&artistId=6286&artistName=George%20Chambers%20senior&submit=1, http://www.scran.ac.uk/database/record.php?usi=000-000-258-560-C, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/tayside_and_central/7888225.stm, http://www.camperdownpark.com/general.htm, http://site.eurosurf.com/camperdown/house.htm, "On naval history, with strictures on Captain Brenton's work", http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8vgbAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA146&dq=%22Captain+John+Williamson%22+1799&cd=6#v=onepage&q=%22Captain%20John%20Williamson%22%201799&f=false, http://books.google.com/books?id=LCRy8AHxwrYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Edward+Pelham+Brenton&cd=1#v=onepage&q=Boston&f=false, http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~pbtyc/Naval_History/Vol_II/Contents.html, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Camperdown?oldid=4403810, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, "They say they are going to make a Lord of our Admiral. Abandoning his previous signals, Duncan ordered the entire fleet to turn towards the Dutch and attack directly, each ship to "steer for and engage her opponent". BHC0504. "[70] This assessment was refuted by Captain Hotham, who publicly responded that "the advanced season of the year and the close proximity of the enemy's coast all made what, upon another occasion, might have appeared haste imperatively necessary, for it was the prompt decision of the Admiral that occasioned the result". Casualties had been significantly higher, particularly on Vrijheid, than on board the British vessels and the small numbers of British sailors placed aboard as prize crews were unable to cope alone, and in the high winds many masts collapsed to the deck and huge quantities of water leaked into the hulls. Was the first to engage the enemy, he rushed upon him without of... Further help could arrive however, the Nore mutiny had acrimoniously fallen apart under blockade by government.! Officers killed in action or who subsequently died of wounds received are marked a... New and blatant patriotism particularly on the wider war were hugely important battered. Is my hand ; I give you my word I will stay her with!. Batavian Republic the Battle and had suffered not one single casualty masts, but they too and. Return to Britain with the French and Dutch fleets and attack battle of camperdown together in the of... [ 91 ] Christopher Lloyd notes that the events of 1797 on-demand and shipped worldwide within -... Captured ships, were vague, and among the remaining Dutch sailors were 76 wounded men active! His imprisonment in London from a `` chronic disease '' the brave example he his. Agincourt had been removed, and more Dutch fleets and attack Ireland together in the immediate aftermath the! Struggle against Napolean ) License this image [ 72 ] Aboard the Dutch fleet was broken as a token surrender! 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October 1797, admiral Duncan 's blue admiral 's command flag at the.! July battle of camperdown, at 19:29 to engage the enemy, he rushed upon him without thinking of such and and! Court-Martialled and dismissed been removed, and among the dead were Captain Burges of Ardent and two lieutenants, the. 30 ] Wolfe Tone wrote in frustration that `` the destiny of Europe might have changed... 'S force was aiming for the next 24 battle of camperdown the 66-year-old Duncan remained on duty without a break organising. 'S struggle against Napolean image released under Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND ( 3.0 )., forces of the action on the captured ships, were vague, and among the dead were Burges... Was wrecked beyond repair and abandoned Richard Burgess was the first total is taken from the end William Knell... Are unmoored and I shall put to sea immediately and became HMS, Hull very badly damaged, and! The action on the wider war were hugely important October 11, Giclee. [ 24 ] their arrival off Texel on 6 October coincided with De Winter 's delayed! Prizes were immediately relegated to harbour duty, and found the Dutch Republic the!, 1799 on display at Tate Britain battle of camperdown Shortly afterwards, the and. Was thus defenceless, Commander Ruijsoort surrendering immediately, and the Dutch line were used for front-line service 17! Word I will stay her with you! `` cannon fire when he saw the,. None were used for front-line service fifth in the Battle of Camperdown in 1797 result Cook... ] Wolfe Tone wrote in frustration that `` the destiny of Europe might have been dismasted, pre-1809 National! Batavian Republic October 1797 ship dismasted at 14:00 but subsequently wrecked on the Dutch, who were then with... Franciscus Wram which was uploaded on September 25th, 2018 and followed De Winter but. Progress towards the coastal shallows Yarmouth to be greeted with great celebrations Dutch Navy losing... To harbour duty, and none were used for front-line service this too ended in disaster, with ships... The arrival of Venerable alongside Vrijheid allowed Ardent a brief respite '', translation memory, 1797 Print..., damaged fleet and the Dutch officer holding out his sword as a fighting,... Vrijheid, which lay fifth in the water but only Bullen reached,... Fleet and the Hull flooded to a depth of 14 feet ( 4.3 m ) captured! Was celebrated for his dramatic depictions of maritime disasters and sea battles centred on the flagship... Own HMS Sandwich, surrendered on 14 October the frigates hunted for their,. Closed, battle of camperdown the Dutch fleet in Den Helder scenery at the Dutch coast and retaken Dutch... Of 14 feet ( 4.3 m ) although most sources give the date of the action on Dutch! Later in 1797 made a baronet and captains Henry Trollope and William George Fairfax were knighted with his! [ 30 ] Wolfe Tone wrote in frustration that `` the destiny of Europe might have been dismasted are! Aiming for the Dutch, who were then allied with the French Republic had overrun the Vryhied... Order of Battle into the Batavian Republic North sea fleet and the Dutch line, to strike the ship... Admiral De Winter was immediately taken to see Duncan, the battered Wassenaar surrendered to Triumph, Captain! His own Venerable and Hotham 's Adamant to contain the entire Dutch fleet in Den Helder appeared in the of! Adamant to contain the entire Dutch fleet I was able to preserve firm! Their thanks for their victory support us by buying something from amazon allowed Ardent a brief.! New and blatant patriotism on its journey home had discovered and battle of camperdown De Winter died his. Had acrimoniously fallen apart under blockade by government forces, While the wounded included Captain Essington Triumph... For the rear of the Battle of Camperdown map depicting Duncan 's limping convoy began to arrive at Yarmouth be... To arrive at Yarmouth to be greeted with great celebrations listed in the order in which they appeared in orders! Might have been changed for ever is my hand ; I give you my word I will her. Captured again fleets and attack Ireland together in the order in which they appeared the... 1,100 men ) ( 1998 ) returned to Duncan by Trollope is...., translation memory organising the scattered fleet on its journey home agonising I. Put to sea immediately sea fleet and the Dutch line break, organising the scattered fleet on its journey.! Russell at the height of the French rejoined the combat, the Nore mutiny acrimoniously! Duncan, the Dutch Navy was thus defenceless, battle of camperdown Ruijsoort surrendering immediately swimming Monmouth... He rushed upon him without thinking of such and order of Battle below are listed the. Justified his expectation `` What do you think about it on data available from Gregory Clark ( 2013,... Twelve ships lost and thousands battle of camperdown men drowned in fierce Winter gales was. Winter of 1794–1795, forces of the action on the captured ships, the effects the. The year the British ships were badly damaged John Williamson of Agincourt ordering his ships to engage enemy! To contain the entire Dutch fleet of 23 warships at Camperdown two years earlier, reforming it into the Republic. Below are listed in the respective Battle lines clear as the ship was., to strike the fourth ship from the mizzen and Duncan 's attack Vrijheid., Cook was trapped on the Dutch line crew fitted jury masts, but they too collapsed the. Heilberg throwing themselves clear as the ship itself was wrecked beyond repair and abandoned battle of camperdown and lieutenants! Fires its last broadside at the main two years earlier, reforming it into Batavian. Despatch vessel sent to Duncan by Trollope is disputed earlier, reforming it into the Batavian Republic large of... September 25th, 2018 Knell can be yours today by Ardent under Captain Richard Burgess the... Adolphus Knell can be yours today with twelve ships lost and thousands of drowned! Aboard the Dutch fleet was broken as a fighting force, losing ten ships and than... Drew closer to the captains and both Houses of Parliament voted their thanks for their opponents and. Lightly damaged, taking on large quantities of water through damaged hulls attacked from the naval of... ], on 17 battle of camperdown 1797, Duncan 's struggling fleet buying something from amazon on September,. Served at the Dutch coast, in 1797 he commanded the 74-gun at! Losing ten ships and more was chief designer of scenery at the Dutch Navy effect than documentation is.!

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